Category - anal
Endoanal ultrasound is now regarded as the gold standard for evaluating anal sphincter pathology in the investigation of anal incontinence. The advent of three-dimensional ultrasound has further improved our understanding of the two-dimensional technique. Transperineal ultrasound (tpus) imaging of anal sphincter using transabdominal probe. (a) normal tpus multiplanar image of anal sphincter complex, with rendered image of acquired volume (bottom right) after adjustment along x , y and z axes, before volume manipulation. Three orthogonal planes are shown transverse plane in panel a, longitudinal plane in panel b and coronal plane in. the anal sphincter is comprised of three layers internal sphincter continuance of the circular smooth muscle of the rectum, involuntary and contracted during rest, relaxes at defecation. Perianal fistula (or fistula-in-ano) (plural fistulae or fistulas) is the presence of a fistulous tract acrossbetweenadjacent to the anal sphincters and is usually an inflammatory condition 4. Transperineal ultrasound assessment of the anal sphincter after obstetric anal sphincter injury (oasi) v. Verbakel, jan deprest, exo-anal imaging of the anal sphincter a comparison between introital and transperineal image acquisition, international urogynecology journal,. Ultrasound imaging of the anal sphincter complex a review authors 1. Zeelha abdool, fcog (sa) consultant obstetrician & gynaecologist, university of pretoria pretoria, south africa, 0002 2. Abdul h sultan md, frcog consultant obstetrician & gynaecologist, mayday university hospital, london road, croydon, surrey, cr7 7ye, united kingdom. Decreased anal sphincter length and vector symmetry were found in only 42 percent of women with known anal sphincter injury. Transanal ultrasound was able to identify 100 percent of the known sphincter injuries but also falsely diagnosed injury in 10 percent of the asymptomatic nulliparous women with intact anal sphincters. Recently, moon et al 1 described the in utero development of the fetal anal sphincter.